Determinantes do Turismo de Negócios Internacionais: uma análise confirmatória de dados

  • Pedro Miguel Carvalho Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo
  • Montserrat Díaz Méndez Universidade da Extremadura
  • Miguel Ángel Márquez Universidade da Extremadura
Palavras-chave: Turismo de Negócios, Turismo de Reuniões, Turismo de Convenções

Resumo

O turismo de negócios é um segmento turístico em grande crescimento que tem concedido aos países uma multiplicidade de benefícios de natureza económica, social e cultural. Neste contexto, torna-se imperativo aprofundar o conhecimento sobre os determinantes de crescimento de curto e médio prazo do turismo de negócios à escala mundial, de modo a ser proposto aos países orientações estratégicas que os auxiliem a melhorar o seu desempenho junto deste segmento turístico. A revisão de literatura permitiu identificar as variáveis (determinantes) controláveis pela ação dos atores institucionais dos destinos de negócios e viabilizou a estimação de um modelo de regressão múltipla com recurso ao software Eviews 6.0. A amostra obtida foi constituída por dados de 136 países a nível mundial, relativos à taxa de crescimento entre os anos 2005 e 2009 e adveio de bases de dados do World Travel and Tourism Council e do World Bank. O estudo mostra que o desenvolvimento de políticas para incrementar o crescimento no curto e médio prazo das viagens e turismo de negócios deve implicar medidas que estimulem o investimento privado em capital fixo turístico, o turismo de lazer e o grau de abertura comercial do país em relação ao exterior.

Referências

AIZENMAN, J.; NOY, I. FDI and trade: Two-way linkages?. The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, v. 46, n.3, p. 317 – 337, 2006.

AZMAN-SAINI, W. N. W; BAHARUMSHAH, A. Z.; LAW, S. H. Foreign direct investment, economic freedom and economic growth: International evidence. Economic Modelling, v. 27, n. 5, p. 1079 – 1089, 2010.

BALTAGI, B. H. Econometric analysis of panel data. 4 thed., West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, 2008.

BERNINI, C. Convention industry and destination clusters: Evidence from Italy. Tourism Management, v. 30, n.6, p. 878 – 889, 2009.

BRADLEY, A.; Hall, T.; Harrison, M. Selling cities: Promoting new Images for meetings tourism. Cities, v.19, n.1, p. 61 – 70, 2002.

CHEN, C.-F. Applying the analytical hierarchy process (AHP): Approach to convention site selection. Journal of Travel Research, v. 45, n. 2, p. 167 – 174, 2006.

COOPER, C.; FLETCHER, J.; FYALL, A.; GILBERT, D.; WANHILL, S. Tourism: Principles and practice. 4th ed., Essex: Pearson Education Limited, 2008.

CROUCH, G.; LOUVIERE, J. Convention site selection: Determinants of destination choice in the Australian domestic conventions sector. Australia: CRC for Sustainable Tourism Pty Ltd., 2004

CROUCH, G.; RITCHIE, J. R. B. Convention site selection research: A review, conceptual model and propositional framework. Journal of Convention and Exhibition Management, v.1, n.1, p. 49 – 69, 1998.

DAVIDSON, R.; MAITLAND, R. Tourism destinations. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1997.

DIPIETRO, R. B.; BREITNER, D.; ROMPF, P.; GODLEWSKA, M. An exploratory study of differences among meeting and exhibition planners in their destination selection criteria. Journal of Convention & Event Tourism, v. 9, n. 4, p. 258 – 276, 2008.

DRAGIČEVIĆ, V.; JOVIČEVIĆ, D.; BELŠIĆ, I.; STANKOV, U.; BOŠKOVIĆ, D. Business tourism destination competitiveness: A case of vojvodina province (Serbia). Economic Research – Ekonomska Istraživanja, v. 25, n. 2, p. 311 – 332, 2012

DRAPER, J.; DAWSON, M.; CASEY, E. An exploratory study of the importance of sustainable practices in the meeting and convention site selection process. Journal of Convention and Event Tourism, v. 12, n. 3, p. 153 – 178, 2011

FENICH, G.; SCOTT-HALSELL, S.; OGBEIDE, G.-C.; HASHIMOTO, K. What the millennial generation from around the world prefers in their meetings, conventions and events. Journal of Conventions and Event Tourism, v. 15, n. 3, p. 236 – 241, 2014.

FLAGESTAD, A.; HOPE, C. A. Strategic success in winter sports destinations: A sustainable value creation perspective. Tourism Management, v. 22, n. 5, p. 445 – 461, 2011.

GUIZZARDI, A. A new approach in business travel survey: Multivariate techniques for strata design. In: VICHI, M.; MONARI, P.; MIGNANI, S.; MONTANARI, A. (Org.). New developments in classification and data analysis. Heidelberg: Springer, 2005, p. 311-316.

GUJARATI, D. Basic econometrics. 3rd ed., New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995

___________ . Econometría. 4ta ed., México: McGrawHill, 2004

HANKINSON, G. Destination brand images: A business tourism perspective. Journal of Services Marketing, v. 19, n.1, p. 24 – 32, 2005.

HAVEN-TANG, C.; JONES, E.; WEBB, C. Critical success factors for business tourism destination. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, v. 22, n. 3/4, p. 109 – 120, 2007.

HONG, L.; YAN, J. Construction the tourism supply chain focusing on the tourism destination as the core. In: International Conference on E-Business and EGovernment (ICEE), 2011, Shanghai. Atas… Shanghai: IEEE, 2011, p. 1179 – 1182.

Huang, H.-C. (2015). How does meetings, incentives, conventions and exhibitions industry attract exhibitors?. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, v. 21, n. 1, p. 1 – 21, 2015.

JUDITH, M.; THOMPSON, K. The UK association conference: Attendance decision-making process. Tourism Management, v. 30, n. 3, p. 400 – 409, 2009.

KAUKAL, M.; HÖPKEN, W.; WERTHNER, H. An approach to enable interoperability in electronic tourism markets. In: 8 th European Conference on Information System, 2000, Vienna. Atas… Vienna: ECIS, 2000, p. 1104 – 1111.

KEITH, H. Elements of multinational strategy. Heidelberg: Springer, 2007.

KULENDRAN, N.; WITT, S. Forecasting the demand for international business tourism. Journal of Travel Research, v. 41, n. 3, p. 265 – 271, 2003.

LEE, T. H.; PARK, J.-Y. Study on the degree of importance of convention service factors: Focusing on the differences in perception between convention planners and participants. Journal of Convention & Exhibition Management, v. 3, n. 4, p. 69 – 85, 2002.

LLOYD, P. J.; MACLAREN, D. Measures of trade openness using CGE analysis. Journal of Policy Modeling, n. 24, p. 67 – 81, 2002.

MIDDLETON, V. Overall tourism product. In: WITT, S.; MOUTINHO, L. (Org.), Tourism marketing and management handbook. Hertfordshire: Prentice Hall, 1995, p. 334-341.

MIDDLETON, V.; FYALL, A.; MORGAN, M.; RANCHHOD, A. Marketing in travel and tourism. 4th ed., Burlington: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2009.

OPPERMANN, M. Convention destination images: Analysis of association meeting planners’ perceptions. Tourism Management, v. 17, n.3, p. 175 – 182, 1996.

_______________. Convention cities: Images and changing fortunes. The Journal of Tourism Studies, v. 7, n.1, p. 10 – 17,1996 b.

OPPERMANN, M.; CHON, K.-S. Convention participationd ecision-making process. Annals of Tourism Research, v. 24, n. 1, p. 178 – 191, 1997.

PAGE, S. J. Tourism management: Managing for change. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann, 2003.

PARK, J.; WU, B.; SHEN, Y.; MORRISON, A.; KONG, Y. The great halls of China? Meeting planners’ perceptions of Beijing as an international convention destination. Journal of Convention & Event Tourism, v. 15, n. 4, p. 244-270, 2014.

PIKE, S. Destination marketing: An integrated marketing communication approach. New York: Routledge, 2008.

SEVERT, D.; WANG, Y.; CHEN, P.; BREITER, D.
Examining the motivation, perceived performance and behavioral intentions of conventions attendees: Evidence from a regional conference. Tourism Management, v. 28, n. 2 p. 399 – 408, 2007.

SHIN, Y. Examining the link between visitors: Motivations and convention destination image. Tourismos: An International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism, v. 4, n.2, p. 29 – 45, 2009.

SMITH, S. L. J. Defining tourism: A suppy-side view. Annals of Tourism Research, v. 15, n. 2, p. 179 – 190, 1988.

SONG, H.; WITT, S. Tourism demand modelling and forecasting: Modern econometric approaches. Oxford: Pergamon, 2000.

SOX, C. B.; BENJAMIN, S.; CARPENTER, J.; STRICK, S. An exploratory study of meeting planner and conference attendees: Perceptions of sustainable issues in convention centers. Journal of Convention and Event Tourism, v. 14, n. 2, p. 144 – 161, 2013.

VAR, T.; CESARIO, F.; MAUSER, G. Convention tourism modelling. Tourism Management, v. 6, n. 3, p. 195–204, 1985.

WHITFIELD, J.; DIOKO, L.; WEBBER, D.; ZHANG, L. Attracting convention and exhibition attendance to complex MICE venues: Emerging data from Macao. International Journal of Tourism Research, v. 16, n.2, p. 169 – 179, 2014.

WOOTTON, G.; STEVENS, T. Business tourism: A study of the market for hotel-based meetings and its contribution to Wales’s tourism. Tourism Management, v. 16, n. 4, p. 305 – 313, 1995.

WORLD TRAVEL & TOURISM COUNCIL. Travel & Tourism Economic Impact 2011 – World. Report. London, 2011, 13 p.

YOO, J. J.; ZHAO, X. Revisiting determinants of convention participation decision making. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, v. 27, n.2, p. 179 – 192, 2010.

ZHANG, H. Q.; LEUNG, V. ; QU, H. A refined model of factors affecting convention participation decisionmaking.Tourism Management, v. 28, n.4, p. 1123 – 1127, 2007.

ZHANG, X.; SONG, H.; HUANG, G. Q. Tourism supply chain management: A new research Agenda. Tourism Management, v. 30, n. 3, p. 345 – 358, 2009.
Publicado
2016-09-30
Seção
RESULTADOS DE PESQUISA EMPÍRICA / EMPIRICAL RESEARCH RESULTS / RESULTADOS DE INVESTIGACIÓN EMPÍRICA