Community-Based Rural Tourism in Super-Ageing Japan: challenges and evolution

  • Yasuo Ohe Chiba University

Resumo

Japan became a super-ageing society in 2005, with rural Japan becoming extremely super-aged. This paper investigated how a rural community conducts tourism activity and how it copes with challenges through studying a community-based rural tourism activity in Chiba. By defining community-based rural tourism as using a bonding type of social capital in the local community, this paper explored the advantages and limitations of this type of social capital when the social capital becomes older. Specifically, it was revealed that community-based rural tourism has done well from aspects of job and income generation, increases in self-confidence and local pride, and to a certain extent coping with the impact of unexpected natural disasters. On the other hand, transferring these activities to the younger generation while maintaining the community-based decision-making system will be challenging. Thus, there comes a time when the use of the traditional bonding social capital within the local community must be expanded toward a more open, wider, and new network beyond the local community.

Referências

Cabinet Office (2013). Annual Report on the Aging Society: FY2012 (Summary). http://www8.cao.go.jp/kourei/english/annualreport/2013/2013pdf_e.html
Ellis, S., & Sheridan, L. (2014). The role of resident perceptions in achieving effective community-based tourism for least developed countries. Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 1-13. doi:10.1080/13032917.2014.939202
Fukutake, T. (1980). Rural society in Japan. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.
Garrod, B., Wornell, R., & Youell, R. (2006). Re-conceptualising rural resources an countryside capital: the case of rural tourism. Journal of Rural Studies, 22, 117-128. doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2005.08.001
Grybovych, O., & Hafermann, D. (2010). Sustainable practices of community tourism planning: lessons form a remote community. Community Development, 41(3), 354-369. doi: 10.1080/15575330903444085
Han, G., Wu, P., Huang, Y., & Yang, Z. (2014). Tourism development and the disempowerment of host residents: types and formative mechanisms. Tourism Geographies: An International Journal of Tourism Space, Place and Environment, 16(5), 717-740. doi: 10.1080/14616688.2014.957718
Holladay, P. D., & Powell, R. B. (2013). Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 21(8), 1188-1211. doi:10.1080/09669582.2013.776059
Iorio, M., & Corsale, A. (2014). Country-based tourism and networking: Viscri, Romania. Jounal of Sustainable Tourism, 22(2), 234-255. doi:10.1080/09669582.2013.802327
Ishikawa, N., & Fukushige, M. (2009). Impact of tourism and fiscal expenditure on remote islands in Japan: a panel data analysis. Applied Economics, 41(7), 921-928. doi: 10.1080/00036840801964484
Knight, J. (1996). Competing hospitalities in Japanese rural tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 23(1), 165-180.
Kontogeorgopoulos, N., Churyen, A., & Duangssaeng, V. (2014). Success factors in community-based tourism in Thailand: the role of luck, external support, and local leadership. Tourism Planning & Development, 11(1), 106-124. doi: 10.1080/21569316.2013.852991
Kontogeorgopoulos, N., Churyen, A., & Duangssaeng, V. (2015). Homestay tourism and the commercialization of the rural home in Thailand. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 20(1), 29-50. doi:10.1080/10941665.2013.852119
López-Guzmán, T., Borges, O., & Hernandez-Merino, M. (2013). Analysis of community-based tourism in Cape Verde. A study on the island of Sáo Vicente. Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 24(2), 129-143. doi: 10.1080/13032917.2012.728138
Mascardo,G. (2014). Tourism and community leadership in rural regions: linking mobility, entrepreneurship, tourism development and community well-being. Tourism Planning & development, 11(3), 354-370. doi: 10.1080/21568316.2014.890129
Muramatsu, N., & Akiyama, H. (2011) Japan: super-aging society preparing for the future. Gerontologist, 51(4), 425-32. doi: 10.1093/geront/gnr067
Murphy, A., & William, P. W. (1999). Attracting Japanese tourists into the rural hinterland: implications for rural development and planning. Tourism Management, 20, 487-499. doi:10.1080/10941660802420945
Murphy, P.E. (1985). Tourism: A Community Approach, New York: Routledge.
Ohe, Y. (2008). Impact of rural tourism operated by retiree farmers on multifunctionality: evidence from Chiba, Japan, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 13(4), 343-356. doi:10.1080/10941660802420945
Ohe, Y. (2010). Barrier to change in rural tourism, in Keller, P. & Bieger, T. (Eds), Managing Change in Tourism: Creating Opportunities-Overcoming Obstacles, Berlin: Erich Schmidt Verlag, 31-46.
Ohe, Y. (2011a). Evaluating internalization of multifunctionality by farm diversification: Evidence from educational dairy farms in Japan, Journal of Environmental Management, 92(3), 886-891. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.10.048
Ohe, Y. (2011b). Evaluating labour productivity of diversifying rural tourism, in Cerina, F., Markandya, A. & McAleer, M. (Eds), Economics of Sustainable Tourism, Oxon: Routledge, 108-125.
Ohe, Y. (2012). Evaluating operators’ attitudes to educational tourism in dairy farms: the case of Japan, Tourism Economics, 18(3), 577-595.
Ohe, Y. (2014). Characterizing rural tourism in Japan: features and challenges. P. Diaz & M.F. Schmitz (Eds.) Cultural Tourism, Southampton: WIT Press, 63-75.
Ohe, Y. and Ciani, A. (2011). Evaluation of agritourism activity in Italy: facility based or local culture based? Tourism Economics, 17(3), 581-601. doi:10.5367/te.2011.0048
Ohe, Y. and Ciani, A. (2012). Accessing demand characteristics of Agritourism in Italy, Tourism and Hospitality Management, 18(2), 281-296.
Ohe, Y. and Kurihara, S. (2013). Evaluating the complementary relationship between local brand farm products and rural tourism: evidence from Japan. Tourism Management, 35, 278-283. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2012.07.003
Ohe,Y., Kurihara, S. & Shimoura, S. (2011). Linkage between operators’ satisfaction and local resource potential for rural tourism. Keller, P. and & Bieger, T. (Eds), Tourism Development after the Crisis Global Imbalances- Poverty Alleviation, Berlin: Erich Schmidt Verlag, 103-123.
Park, D., Lee, K., Choi, H., & Yoon, Y. (2012). Factors influencing social capital in rural tourism communities in South Korea. Tourism Management, 33, 1511-1520. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2012.02.005
Park, D., Nunkoo, R., & Yoon, Y. (2015). Rural residents’ attitudes to tourism and the moderating effects of social capital. Tourism Geographies: An International Journal of Tourism Space, Place and Environment, 17(1), 112-133. doi:10.1080/14616688.2014.959993
Phommavong, S., & Sörensson, E. (2014). Ethnic tourism in Lao PDR: gendered divisions of labour in community-based tourism for poverty reduction. Current Issues in Tourism, 17(4), 350-362. doi:10.1080/13683500.2012.721758
Poudyal, N. C., Hodges, D. G., & Cordell, H.K. (2008). Ecological Economics, 68, 240-248. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2008.02.022
Sánchez-Zamora, P., Gallardo-Cobos, R., & Ceña-Delgado, F. (2014). Rural areas face the economic crisis: Analyzing the determinants of successful territorial dynamics. Journal of Rural Studies, 35, 11-25. doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2014.03.007
Thompson, C. S. (2003). Host produced rural tourism Towa’s Tokyo antenna shop. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(3), 580-600. doi:10.1016/j.annals.2003.11.004
Tolkach, D., & King, B. (2015). Strengthening community-based tourism in a new resource-based island nation: Why and how. Tourism Management, 48, 386-398. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2014.12.013
Vaughan, M. B., & Ardoin, N. M. (2014). The implication of differing tourist/resident perceptions for community-based resource management: a Hawaiian coastal resource area study. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 22(1), 50-68. doi:10.1080/09669582.2013.802326
Walter, P. G. (2013). Catalysts for transformative learning in community-based ecotourism. Current Issue in Tourism, 1-16. doi:10.1080/1368500.2013.850063
Wu, M., & Pearce, P. L. (2014). Asset-based community development as applied to tourism in Tibet. Tourism Geographies: An International Journal of Tourism space, Place and Environment, 16(3), 438-456. doi:10.1080/14616688.2013.824502
Zhao, W., Richie, J. R. B., & Echtner, C. M. (2011). Social capital and tourism entrepreneurship. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(4), 1570-1593. doi:10.1016/j.annals.2011.02.006
Publicado
2016-04-15
Seção
RESULTADOS DE PESQUISA EMPÍRICA / EMPIRICAL RESEARCH RESULTS / RESULTADOS DE INVESTIGACIÓN EMPÍRICA