The World Bank Group operations in conflict affected States and the Ruggie Principles: an opportunity for accountability
In spite of the efforts that both States and International Institutions have carried out to prevent Human Rights abuses related to development activities, the results obtained have not completely fulfilled the expectations. In fact, in some cases, they have contributed to weaken the delicate balance in conflict-affected areas, increasing poverty and marginalization. Indeed, the WBG activities in Fragile and Conflict States face several challenges regarding the implementation of the UNGPs and their analysis is crucial in the improvement of social risks linked with Banks operations in conflict-affected areas. To this regard, the present paper analyses the system created by the WB to avoid Human Rights violations and how it can be influenced by the UNGPs. The author has divided the WBG system in two structural elements: Operational Policies and the Bank Risk Assessment analyzing. At the same time the paper face the issue of the immunity regarding human rights violations.
- ABDELWAHAB, B.M.Some observations Regarding Environmental Covenants and Conditionalities in World Bank Lending Activities.Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law .
- BAGLIONI P., The Impact Of World Bank Activity On Human Right: A Sustainable Approach, The Bank’s Legal Framework for Human Rights, PhD thesis “Tor Vergata” University of Rome.
- BANGLADESH WORKING GROUP ON INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS AND TRADE ORGANIZATIONS. The World Bank And The Question Of Immunity. Vol.1 No.1 September 4, 2004. www.unnayan.org. Last visit (March 15 2014).
- BENEYTOJ. M., Accountability of international organizations for human rights violations. Council of Europe, Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights (Dec 17, 2013)
- BRADLOW, D. Should the International Financial Institutions Play a Role in the Implementation and Enforcement of International Humanitarian Law?. Kansas Law Review. pp. 50. 2002.
- BRADLOW, D.; GEOSSMAN, C. Limited Mandates and Intertwined Problems: a New Challenge for the World Bank and the IMF, Human Rights Quarterly. 1995.
- BRETTON WOODS PROJECT, Safeguard policies and performance standards. www.brettonwoodsproject.org. Last visit (26 January 2014).
- BRODNIG, G. The World Bank and Human Rights: Mission Impossible? .The Fletcher Journal of Development Studies (Vol. XVII. 2002). www.fletcher.tufts.edu.
- CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. Investment Climate Update: South Sudan .Vol. 2 No 3. September 2011.www.uswwwchamber.com last visited (16 May 2014).
- COMPLIANCE ADVISOR OMBUDSMAN. Operational Guidelines 2006. www.cao-ombudsman.org. Last visit (April 11, 2014).
- DE FEYTER, K. The International Financial Institutions and Human Rights – Law and Practice. Institute of Development Policy and Management, Centre for Human Rights, University of Maastricht. Antwerp.2002.
- EU. Strategy on Corporate Social Responsibility.
- Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act in the United States, 28 U.S.C. Sec. 1605.
- GARY, I.; REISCH, N. Chad’s Oil: Miracle or Mirage? Following the Money in Africa’s newest Petro-State. Catholic Relief Servs. & Bank Info. p. 4. 2005. www.bicusa.org.
- GILLIES, D. Human Rights, Democracy and Good Governance: stretching the World Bank´s policy Frontiers.
- HEAD, W. J. Law and Policy in International Financial Institutions: the Changing Role of Law in the IMF and the Multilateral Development Banks, Kansas Journal of Law & Public Policy p.17. 2007.
- HERBERTSON, K.; THOMPSON, K. and GOODLAND R. A Roadmap for Integrating Human Rights into the World Bank Group. World Resource Institute. www.pdf.wri.org.
- HERNANDEZ, G. To Lend or Not to Lend: Oil, Human Rights, and the World Bank´s Internal Contradictions. Harvard Human Rights Journal No.14. pp. 201. 2001.
- HOCKETT, R. From macro to micro to “Mission Creep” defending the IMF´s emerging concern with the Infrastructural Prerequisites to Global Financial Stability. Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 41.2002.
- HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH. Abuse-Free Development, How the World Bank Should Safeguard Against Human Rights Violations, Human Rights Watch reports, United States, Jul 2013. www.hrw.org.
- HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH. Sudan, Oil, and Human Rights. www.hrw.org. Last visited (16 May 2014).
- HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH. World Bank Group: Inadequate Response to Killings, Land Grabs, Ombudsman Finds Honduras Palm Oil Investment Violates Key Policies. 2014.
- International Bank for Reconstruction and Development Article of Agreement. Art. IV, Sec. 10.
- INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION. Tripartite Declaration of Principles concerning Multinational Enterprises and Social Policy.
- KINLEY, D. The World Bank Legal Review: Law, Equity, and Development. Sydney Law School Research Paper.No. 07/11. 2007.
- M. B., The international finance corporation’s Compliance Advisor/Ombudsman (CAO): an examination of accountability and effectiveness from a global administrative law perspective. New York University Journal of International Law and Politics .Vol. 44:1279. 2012.
- OECD. Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises.
- PALACIO. The Way Forward: Human Rights and the World Bank, article on the World Bank Development Outreach, World Bank Institute. October 2006. web.worldbank.org last visit: 28 February 2014.
- RUTSEL, S. J. M. International Financial Institutions and Claims of Private Parties Immunity Obliges. World Bank Legal Review, International Financial Institutions and Global Legal Governance. Ed. Cissé H. Bradlow D. & Kingsbury B., Vol. 3, 2012.
- SHIHATA F. I., The World Bank and Governance Issues in its Borrowing Members, in Bradlow D. & Hunter D., The Future of International Law and International Financial Institution.
- SHIHATA, F. I. Human Rights, Development, and International Financial Institutions in Conference on Human Rights, Public Finance and the development process. American University International Law Review .Vol. 8 Issue 1, Article 3. digitalcommons.wcl.american.edu.
- SUPREME COURT OF THE NETHERLANDS.Mothers of Srebrenica v. Netherlands and United Nations (1997) judgment of 13 April 2012.International Law in Domestic Courts (ILDC), Oxford Law Reports 1760. 2012.
- UN. Global Compact. https://www.unglobalcompact.org/. 2017
- United Nations and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Nov. 15, 1947, art I(2) 16 U.N.T.S. 346.
- United Nations and the International Development Association, Mar. 27, 1961, 394 U.N.T.S. 222;
- United Nations and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (Acting for and on Behalf of the International Finance Corporation) Feb. 20, 1957, 256 U.N.T.S. 314.
- United Nations. Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner. Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights: Implementing the United Nations ‘Protect, Respect and Remedy’ Framework. (A/HRC/17/31, 21 March 2011).
- WORLD BANK GROUP. FCS Countries Are a Key Priority for the World Bank. web.worldbank.org.
- WORLD BANK GROUP. Country results supported by the Bank, The World Bank Results 2013.
- WORLD BANK GROUP. Proposed Adoption and Application of World Bank Performance Standards for Private Sector Projects supported By IBRD/IDA. Internal Memorandum, No 69559 Jun 4, 2012. www.wds.worldbank.org. Last visit (Jan25, 2014).
- WORLD BANK GROUP. Safeguard Policies. www.worldbank.org. Last visit (Jan 20, 2014).
- WORLD BANK GROUP. Project Critics Threatened, Harassed, Jailed Prevent, Respond to Reprisals. 2015
- WORLD BANK INSPECTION PANEL. Accountability at the World Bank, the inspection panel at 15 years. ewebapps.worldbank.org Last visit (Mar 28, 2014. pp.47-55).
- WORLD BANK INSPECTION PANEL. How to file a request for inspection to the World Bank inspection panel general guidelines. ewebapps.worldbank.org Last visit (Mar 28, 2014).
- WORLD BANK. Address Ethiopia Findings Response to Inquiry Dismissive of Abuses, Feb, 23 2015; World Bank: No Probe of Link to Abuses in Uzbekistan, Decision on Forced Labor ‘Shocking,’ Rights Advocates Say. 2015 www.hrw.org, last visited, Jan 13 2015.