Satisfação e Lealdade dos Turistas Internacionais ao Butan


  • Karma Lhendup Lhendup North Eastern Hill University
  • Bhagirathi Panda North Eastern Hill University



Turista internacional. Imagen de destino. Destino lealtad. Revisar la intención. Bután.


Este estudo teve como objetivo explorar os antecedentes da lealdade dos turistas internacionais ao Butão, baseando-se em dados primários gerados através da "Pesquisa de Saída de Visitantes" do Conselho de Turismo do Butão de 2017, utilizando um modelo integrado modificado proposto por Chi e Qu (2008). De acordo com o Conselho de Turismo do Butão, os turistas internacionais que chegam ao Butão na última década dispararam com um crescimento anual constante. Entretanto, há poucos estudos sobre se esta tendência continuaria nos próximos anos. Uma pesquisa transversal foi realizada nos quatro pontos de turismo do Butão, cobrindo diferentes estações do ano. Um total de 1.528 turistas internacionais que partiram desses pontos de venda foram entrevistados por meio de um questionário estruturado. Os dados foram analisados utilizando uma abordagem de modelo de equação estrutural (SEM). Os resultados deste estudo revelaram que a GNH foi um antecedente direto à imagem do destino e que a imagem do destino não influenciou diretamente a fidelidade ao destino, mas afetou direta e significativamente a satisfação geral dos turistas internacionais que visitam o Butão. Este documento também discutiu as implicações para os vendedores e gerentes de destino do Butão.

 Palavras-chave: Turista internacional. Imagen de destino. Destino lealtad. Revisar la intención. Bután.


Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Karma Lhendup Lhendup, North Eastern Hill University

PhD student under the Department of Economics, North Eastern Hill University, Meghalaya State, India. He also serves as a Sr. Lecturer for Norbuling Rigter College, Paro, Bhutan and a visiting lecturer to colleges in India, Thailand and Royal Institute of Management in Bhutan. He had been a civil servant from 2003-2016 in the Royal Government of Bhutan and served in various capacities as researcher. His research interests focus on the Development Economics with the specific emphasis on Tourism and Hospitality. His current topic of PhD dissertation is ‘Tourist Satisfaction and Destination Loyalty: A case study of Bhutan.’  Postal address: Norbuling Rigter Collge (NRC), Kuenga Group of Companies, Norbuling, Doteng. PO Box 1211, Paro Bhutan. Mobile:+975-17115900. [ ] [ ]

Bhagirathi Panda, North Eastern Hill University

Professor in Economics under the Department of Economics, North Eastern Hill University, Meghalaya, India. His research areas are Economics of Development, Rural Development, Act East Policy and Regional Development and Economy of North East India. He currently serves as Dean, School of Economics, Management and Information Sciences, North Eastern Hill University, India. Postal Address: Prof. Bhagirathi Panda, Dean of Study, School of Economics, Management and Information Science, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong-793022. Meghalaya, India. Mobile: +91-9436117613. [ ] [ ]


Alba, J. W., & Hutchinson, J. W. (1987). Dimensions of consumer expertise. Journal of consumer research, 13(4), 411-454.
Alegre, J., & Garau, J. (2010). Tourist satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Annals of tourism research, 37(1), 52-73.
Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1982). Some methods for respecifying measurement models to obtain unidimensional construct measurement. Journal of marketing research, 19(4), 453-460.
Assaker, G. (2014). Examining a hierarchical model of Australia’s destination image. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 20(3), 195-210.
Alhemoud, A. M., & Armstrong, E. G. (1996). Image of tourism attractions in Kuwait. Journal of travel Research, 34(4), 76-80.
Baker, D. A., & Crompton, J. L. (2000). Quality, satisfaction and behavioral intentions. Annals of tourism research, 27(3), 785-804.
Baloglu, S., & Brinberg, D. (1997). Affective images of tourism destinations. Journal of travel research, 35(4), 11-15.
Baloglu, S. (2001). Image variations of Turkey by familiarity index: Informational and experiential dimensions. Tourism management, 22(2), 127-133.
Best, R. J., & Coney, K. A. (1989). Consumer behavior: Implications for marketing strategy. McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Bigné, J. E., Sanchez, M. I., & Sanchez, J. (2001). Tourism image, evaluation variables and after purchase behaviour: inter-relationship. Tourism management, 22(6), 607-616.
Bloemer, J., & De Ruyter, K. (1998). On the relationship between store image, store satisfaction and store loyalty. European Journal of marketing, 32(5/6), 499-513.
Bhutan, T. C. (208). Bhutan Tourism Monitor. Thimphu: Bhutan: Kuensel Corporation Ltd.
Kagan, J. (2019, April 18). Government and Policy: Election Guide 2020. Retrieved January 25, 2020, from Investopedia:
Ura, K. (n.d.). Centre for Bhutan Studies & GNH Resarch. Retrieved 1 28, 2020, from Centre for Bhutan Studies & GNH Resarch:
Bolton, R. N., & Drew, J. H. (1991). A longitudinal analysis of the impact of service changes on customer attitudes. The Journal of Marketing, 1-9.
Burns, A. C., Burns, K. R., & Bush, R. F. (1995, March). The SPSS Student Assistant: The Integration of a Statistical Analysis Program into a Marketing Research Textbook. In Developments in Business Simulation and Experiential Learning: Proceedings of the Annual ABSEL conference (Vol. 22).
Chen, C. F., & Tsai, D. (2007). How destination image and evaluative factors affect behavioral intentions?. Tourism management, 28(4), 1115-1122.
Chi, C. G. Q., & Qu, H. (2008). Examining the structural relationships of destination image, tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty: An integrated approach. Tourism management, 29(4), 624-636.
Chi, C. G. Q. (2012). An examination of destination loyalty: Differences between first-time and repeat visitors. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 36(1), 3-24.
Cronin Jr, J. J., & Taylor, S. A. (1992). Measuring service quality: a reexamination and extension. Journal of marketing, 56(3), 55-68.
Darnell, A. C., & Johnson, P. S. (2001). Repeat visits to attractions: a preliminary economic analysis. Tourism management, 22(2), 119-126.
Diener, E. (2000). Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and a proposal for a national index. American psychologist, 55(1), 34.
Dorji, T. (2001). Sustainability of tourism in Bhutan. Journal of Bhutan studies, 3(1), 84-104.
Deffner, A., & Metaxas, T. (2005). Shaping the vision, the identity and the cultural image of European places.
Easterlin, R. A. (2001). Income and happiness: Towards a unified theory. The economic journal, 111(473), 465-484.
Eusébio, C., & Vieira, A. L. (2013). Destination attributes' evaluation, satisfaction and behavioural intentions: A structural modelling approach. International Journal of Tourism Research, 15(1), 66-80.
Eboli, L., & Mazzulla, G. (2009). A new customer satisfaction index for evaluating transit service quality. Journal of Public transportation, 12(3), 2.
Eusébio, C., & Vieira, A. L. (2013). Destination attributes' evaluation, satisfaction and behavioural intentions: A structural modelling approach. International Journal of Tourism Research, 15(1), 66-80.
Echtner, C. M., & Ritchie, J. B. (1991). The meaning and measurement of destination image. Journal of tourism studies, 2(2), 2-12.
Echtner, C. M., & Ritchie, J. B. (1993). The measurement of destination image: An empirical assessment. Journal of travel research, 31(4), 3-13.
Fritz, C., & Sonnentag, S. (2006). Recovery, well-being, and performance-related outcomes: The role of workload and vacation experiences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(4), 936.
Fornell, C., & Wernerfelt, B. (1987). Defensive marketing strategy by customer complaint management: a theoretical analysis. Journal of Marketing research, 24(4), 337-346.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics.
Frey, B. S. (2008). Happiness: A revolution in economics. MIT press.
Hair Jr, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1995). Multivariate Data Analysis with Readings,“Fourth Edition, Prentice-Hall International, Inc.
Gillet, S., Schmitz, P., & Mitas, O. (2016). The snap-happy tourist: The effects of photographing behavior on tourists’ happiness. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 40(1), 37-57.
Gursoy, D., & McCleary, K. W. (2004). AN INTEGRATIVE MODEL OF TOURISTS’INFORMATION SEARCH BEHAVIOR. Annals of tourism research, 31(2), 353-373.
Gursoy, D., & Kendall, K. W. (2006). Hosting mega events: Modeling locals’ support. Annals of tourism research, 33(3), 603-623.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 207-219). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice hall.
Han, H., & Kim, Y. (2010). An investigation of green hotel customers’ decision formation: Developing an extended model of the theory of planned behavior. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29(4), 659-668.
Hellier, P. K., Geursen, G. M., Carr, R. A., & Rickard, J. A. (2003). Customer repurchase intention: A general structural equation model. European journal of marketing, 37(11/12), 1762-1800.
Horng, J. S., Liu, C. H., Chou, H. Y., & Tsai, C. Y. (2012). Understanding the impact of culinary brand equity and destination familiarity on travel intentions. Tourism management, 33(4), 815-824.
Hui, T. K., Wan, D., & Ho, A. (2007). Tourists’ satisfaction, recommendation and revisiting Singapore. Tourism management, 28(4), 965-975.
Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural equation modeling: a multidisciplinary journal, 6(1), 1-55.
Hu, Y., & Ritchie, J. B. (1993). Measuring destination attractiveness: A contextual approach. Journal of travel research, 32(2), 25-34.
Jang, S. S., & Feng, R. (2007). Temporal destination revisit intention: The effects of novelty seeking and satisfaction. Tourism management, 28(2), 580-590.
Morrison, A. M.,& Anderson, D. J. (2002). Destination branding. Unpublished Notes, June, 10.
Kagan, J. (2019, April 18). Government and Policy: Election Guide 2020. Retrieved January 25, 2020, from Investopedia:
Knobloch, U., Robertson, K., & Aitken, R. (2017). Experience, emotion, and eudaimonia: A consideration of tourist experiences and well-being. Journal of Travel Research, 56(5), 651-662.
Kozak, M., & Rimmington, M. (2000). Tourist satisfaction with Mallorca, Spain, as an off-season holiday destination. Journal of travel research, 38(3), 260-269.
Kler, B. K., & TrIBe, J. (2012). Flourishing through SCUBA: Understanding the pursuit of dive experiences. Tourism in Marine Environments, 8(1-2), 19-32.
Knutson, B. J. (1988). Frequent travelers: Making them happy and bringing them back. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 29(1), 82-87.
Lewis, R. C., & Pizam, A. (1981). Guest surveys: A missed opportunity. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 22(3), 37-44.
Maestro, R. M. H., Gallego, P. A. M., & Requejo, L. S. (2007). The moderating role of familiarity in rural tourism in Spain. Tourism Management, 28(4), 951-964.
Matteucci, X., & Filep, S. (2017). Eudaimonic tourist experiences: The case of flamenco. Leisure Studies, 36(1), 39-52.
Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric Theory: 2d Ed. McGraw-Hill.
Jum, N., & Ira, H. B. (1978). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Nawijn, J. (2011). Happiness through vacationing: Just a temporary boost or long-term benefits?. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12(4), 651-665.
Nyaupane, G. P., & Timothy, D. J. (2010). Power, regionalism and tourism policy in Bhutan. Annals of Tourism Research, 37(4), 969-988.
Oh, H., & Parks, S. C. (1997). Customer satisfaction and service quality: a critical review of the literature and research implications for the hospitality industry. Hospitality Research Journal, 20, 35-64.
Oliver, R. L. (1980). A cognitive model of the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction decisions. Journal of marketing research, 460-469.
Oliver Richard, L. (1997). Satisfaction: A behavioral perspective on the consumer. New York ˈ NY: Irwin-McGraw-Hill.
Oliver, Richard L., and John E. Swan. "Equity and disconfirmation perceptions as influences on merchant and product satisfaction." Journal of consumer research 16, no. 3 (1989): 372-383.
Parasuraman, A., & Grewal, D. (2000). The impact of technology on the quality-value-loyalty chain: a research agenda. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 28(1), 168-174.
Peter, J. P., Olson, J. C., & Grunert, K. G. (1999). Consumer behavior and marketing strategy.
Pike, S. (2002). Destination image analysis—a review of 142 papers from 1973 to 2000. Tourism management, 23(5), 541-549.
Prentice, R. (2004). Tourist familiarity and imagery. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(4), 923-945.
Reichheld, F. F., & Sasser, J. W. (1990). Zero defections: Quality comes to services. Harvard business review, 68(5), 105-111.
Reinfeld, M. A. (2003). Tourism and the politics of cultural preservation: A case study of Bhutan. JOURNAL OF PUBLIC AND INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS-PRINCETON-, 14, 125-143.
Schultzjan, K. (2017). In Bhutan, Happiness Index as Gauge for Social Ills. New York Times.
Seaton, A. V., & Bennett, M. M. (1996). The marketing of tourism products: Concepts, issues and cases. Cengage Learning EMEA.
Sivo, S. A., Fan, X., Witta, E. L., & Willse, J. T. (2006). The search for" optimal" cutoff properties: Fit index criteria in structural equation modeling. The Journal of Experimental Education, 74(3), 267-288.
Smith, V. L. (1981). Controlled vs. Uncontrolled Tourism: Bhutan and Nepal. Rain, (46),4-6.
Su, A. Y. L. (2004). Customer satisfaction measurement practice in Taiwan hotels. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 23(4), 397-408.
Tasci, A. D., & Gartner, W. C. (2007). Destination image and its functional relationships. Journal of travel research, 45(4), 413-425.
Wirtz, J., Mattila, A. S., & Tan, R. L. (2000). The moderating role of target-arousal on the impact of affect on satisfaction—an examination in the context of service experiences. Journal of retailing, 76(3), 347-365.
Ura, K. (n.d.). Centre for Bhutan Studies & GNH Resarch. Retrieved 1 28, 2020, from Centre for Bhutan Studies & GNH Resarch:
Ura, K., Alkire, S., Zangmo, T., & Wangdi, K. (2012). A short guide to gross national happiness index. The Centre for Bhutan Studies.
Yoon, Y., & Uysal, M. (2005). An examination of the effects of motivation and satisfaction on destination loyalty: a structural model. Tourism management, 26(1), 45-56.
Verma, R. (2017). Gross National Happiness: meaning, measure and degrowth in a living development alternative. Journal of Political Ecology, 24(1), 476-490.
Zeithaml, V. A. (1988). Consumer perceptions of price, quality, and value: a means-end model and synthesis of evidence. Journal of marketing, 52(3), 2-22.
Zeithaml, V. A., Bitner, M. J., & Gremler, D. D. (2006). Integrating customer focus across the firm. Services marketing, New York, Mc-Graw-Hill/Irwin.




Como Citar

Lhendup, K. ., & Bhagirathi Panda. (2020). Satisfação e Lealdade dos Turistas Internacionais ao Butan. Revista Latino-Americana De Turismologia, 6(1).