Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty: a comparative study of hotel with retail banking, hospitals and retail services industries


  • Subash Kizhakanveatil Bhaskaran Pillai Goa University Taleigao Plateau



Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction, Loyalty, SERVQUAL


This exploratory research aims to determine whether there are perceived and significant differences with respect to service quality (SQ) attributes offered by four different service industries; viz.; Banks, Hotels, Hospitals and Retail storesin Goa. The SERVQUAL model (Parasuramanet al., 1988) was used to measure service quality perception. This study will attempt to validate the relationship between SQand customer satisfactionand also attempt to validate any potential mediating effect that customer satisfaction may have on the relationship between SQ and Customer Loyalty. The findings of the research indicate that the attributes: perceived tangibilityand perceived responsivenesswere higher in Hospitals, followed by hotels,as compared to Banks and Retail Stores. Perceived empathyof Hospitals was higher as compared to Hotels, Banks and Retail Stores. The perceived assuranceattribute of SQabout Hospitals was higher as compared to Hotels, Banks and Retail Stores. These findings confirm the work of Caruana (2002) and Agus et al. (2007) regarding the relationship between SQdimensions and customer satisfaction, with the exception of Banks as it was observed that customers associated satisfaction with SQ attributes. The research confirms the mediating role of customer satisfaction between SQandcustomer loyalty.


Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Subash Kizhakanveatil Bhaskaran Pillai, Goa University Taleigao Plateau

Professor, Dean of Faculty of Commerce and Management Studies

Head of Department of Commerce, Goa University

Taleigao Plateau, Goa – 403206, India


Agus, A., Barker, S., and Kandampully, J. (2007). “An exploratory study of service quality in the Malaysian public service sector”. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 24(2), 177-190.

Anderson, E.W. (1996), "Customer satisfaction and price tolerance", Marketing Letters, Vol. 7, pp. 19-30.

Baker, Julie, Dhruv Grewal, and A. Parasuraman. 1994. "The Influence of Store Environment on Quality Inferences and Store Image." Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 22 (Fall): 328-339.

Berry, L. L. and L. G. Gresham (1995), "Relationship retailing: Transforming customers into clients," in Relationship Marketing for Competitive Advantage Winning and Keeping Customers, A. Payne and M. Christopher and M. Clark and H.Peck, Eds. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 75-82.

Bellenger, D.N., Steinberg, E. and Stanton, W. (1976), "The congruence of store image and self image: as it relates to store loyalty", Journal of Retailing, Vol. 52, pp. 17-32.

Biong, H. (1993), "Satisfaction and loyalty to suppliers within the grocery trade", European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 27, pp. 21-38.

Bloemer, J. (1998). “Investigating derivers of bank loyalty: the complex relationship between image, service quality and satisfaction”. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 16(7), 276-286.

Bowen, J. T. and S. Shoemaker (1998), "Loyalty: A strategic commitment," Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 39 (1), 12-25.

Carev, D. (2008). “Guest satisfaction and guest loyalty study for hotel industry”. College of Applied Science and Technology, Pro Quest. database.

Caruana, A. (2002). “Service loyalty. The effects of servic quality and the mediating role of customer satisfaction”, European Journal of Marketing, 36(7/8), 811-828.

Clow, K, E. (1993). “Building a competitive advantage for service firms”. International Journal of Service Marketing, 7(1), 22-32.

Crosby, L.A., Evans, K. and Cowles, D. (1990), "Relationship quality in services selling: an interpersonal influence perspective", Journal of Marketing, Vol. 54, pp. 68-81.

Crosby, P B (1984). Paper presented to the “Bureau de Commerce,” Montreal, Canada (Unpublished), November

Czepiel, J.A. (1990), "Managing relationships with customers: a differentiation philosophy of marketing", in Bowen, D.E., Chase, R.B. and Cummings, T.G. (Eds), Service Management Effectiveness, Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco, CA, pp. 299-

Czepiel, J.A. and Gilmore, R. (1987), "Exploring the concept of loyalty in services", in Czepiel, J.A., Congram, C.A. and Shanahan, J. (Eds), The Services Marketing Challenge: Integrating for Competitive Advantage, AMA, Chicago, IL, pp. 91-4

Day, G.S. (1969), "A two-dimensional concept of brand loyalty", Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 9, pp. 29-36.

DeKimpe, M.G., Steenkamp, J.-B.E.M., Mellens, M. and Vanden Abeele, P. (1998), “Decline and variability in brand loyalty", International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol. 14, pp. 405-20.

Dick, A.S. and Basu, K. (1994), "Customer loyalty: toward an integrated conceptual framework", Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 22, pp. 99-113.

Diekhoff, George. (1992). Statistics for the Social and Behavioral Sciences: Univariate, Bivariate and Multivariate. Wm. C. Brown Publishers

Duncan, E., and Elliot, G. (2002). “Customer service quality and financial performance among Australian retail financial institutions”, Journal of Financial Services Marketing, 7(1), 25-41.

Dwyer, F.R., Schurr, P.H. and Oh, S. (1987), "Developing buyer-seller relationships", Journal of Marketing, Vol. 51, pp. 11-27.

Ehigie, B. O. (2006). “Correlates of customer loyalty to their bank: a case study in Nigeria”. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 24(7), 494-508.

Ehigie, B. O. (2006). “Correlates of customer loyalty to their bank: a case study in Nigeria”. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 24(7), 494-508.

Eiglier, P and Langeard, E (1987). “Servuction, Le Marketing des Service”s, Paris: McGraw-Hill.

Evanschitzky, H. and Wunderlich, M. (2006), „An Examination of Moderator Effects in the Four-Stage Loyalty Model”, Journal of Service Research, 8, 4, 330-345.

Fisher, A. (2001). “Winning the battle for customers”, Journal of Financial Services Marketing, 6(2), 77-83.

Fornell, C., Johnson, M.D., Anderson, E.W., Cha, J. and Bryant, B.E. (1996), "The American customer satisfaction, index: nature, purpose and findings", Journal of Marketing, Vol. 58, pp. 7-18.

Gremler, D.D. and Brown, S.W. (1996), "Service loyalty; its nature, importance and implications", in Edvardsson, B., Brown, S.W., Johnston, R. and Scheuing, E. (Eds), QUIS V: Advancing Service Quality: A Global Perspective, ISQA, New York, NY, pp. 171-81.

Gremler, D. D., K. Gwinner, and M. Bitner (1997), "An empirical examination of relational benefits in services industries: What so customers receive from the relationship?" Marketing Theory and Applications AMA Winter Educators' Conference, Chicago, IL, 241-242.

Gronroos, C. (1984). “A service quality model and its marketing implications”, European Journal of Marketing, 18(4), 36-44.

Gwinner, K. P., D. D. Gremler, and M. Bitner (1998), "Relational benefits in services industries: The customer's perspective," Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 26 (2), 101-114.

Hallowell, R. (1996), "The relationships of customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, and profitability: an empirical study", International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol. 7, pp. 27-42.

Indian brand Equity Foundations(IBEF),2015, Service Sector in India(Online).Available from: [Accesed on 1/7/15]

Jabnoun N, Chaker M (2003). Comparing the quality of private and public hospitals. Managing Serv. Qual., 13(4): 290-299.

Jain V, Gupta S, Jain S (2012), “Customer Perception on Service Quality in Banking Sector: With special reference to Indian Private Banks in Moradabad Region”, IJRFM, Volume 2, Issue 2, ISSN: 2231-5985, 597-610.

Juran, J M (1988). “Juran on Planning for Quality”, New York: The Free Press

Kandampully, J. (1998). “Service Quality to service loyalty: a relationship which goes beyond customer services”, Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 9(6), 431-443.

Keaveney, S.M. (1995), "Customer switching behaviour in service industries: an exploratory study", Journal of Marketing, Vol. 59, pp. 71-82.

Kim-Soon N , Rahman A , Visvalingam L,” SERVQUAL: Can It Be Used to Differentiate Guest’s Perception of Service Quality of 3 Star from a 4 Star Hotel” International Business Research; Vol. 7, No. 7; 2014 ISSN 1913-9004 E-ISSN 1913-9012.

Kish, J. (2000). “Before your customers leave”, Bank Marketing, 32(2), 30.

Kline, P. (2000). The handbook of psychological testing (2nd ed.). London: Routledge, page 13

Kumar, B., Banga, G., Thapar, J. (2011), “An Assessment of Service Quality of Hotel Industry”, Pacific Business Review International, 4(1), pp.13-30.

Lee, B. A. and Zeiss, C.A. (1980), "Behavioral commitment to the role of sport consumer: an exploratory analysis", Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 64, pp. 405-19.

Lehtinen, U., and Lehtinen, J.R. (1982). “Service quality- a study of dimensions”, unpublished working paper, Service Management Institute, Helsinki, 439-460

Levesque, T.J., and McDougall, G.H.G. (1996). “Determinants of customer satisfaction in retail banking”, International Journal of Bank Marketing, 14(7), 12-20.

Lewis, R.C., and Booms, B.H. (1983). The marketing aspects of service quality. Emerging Perspectives in Service Marketing, in Berry, L.L., Shostack, G. and Upah, G. (Eds) American Marketing Association, Chicago, IL 99-107.

Liljander, V. and Strandvik, T. (1995), "The nature of customer relationships in services", in Swartz, T.A., Bowen, D. and Brown, S.W. (Eds), Advances in Services Marketing Management, Vol. 4, pp. 141-67.

Liljander, V., & Strandvik, T. (1993). “Estimating Zones of Tolerance in Perceived Service Quality and Perceived Service Value”, International Journal of Service Industry Management, 4(2), 6-28.

Macintosh, G. and Lockshin, L.S. (1998), "Retail relationships and store loyalty; a multilevel perspective", International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol. 14, pp. 487-98.

Malik, Eshan M, Naeem, Basharat, Arif, Zoune(2011).,“How Do Service Quality Perceptions Contribute in Satisfying Banking Customers?” Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business Vol 3, No. 8, December 2011,646-653.

Mesay Sata Shanka (2012), “Bank Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty in Ethiopian Banking Sector” Journal of Business Administration and Management Sciences Research Vol. 1(1), pp. 001-009.

Mittal, V., & Kamakura, W.A. (2001). “Satisfaction, Repurchase Intent, and Repurchase Behavior: Investigating the Moderating Effect of Customer Characteristics”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 38(1), 131-142.

Newman, J.W. and Werbel, R.A. (1973), "Multivariate analysis of brand loyalty for major household appliances", Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 10, pp. 404-9.

Newman, K. (2001). “Interrogating SERVQUAL: a critical assessment of service quality measurement in a high street retail bank”, International Journal of Bank Marketing, 19(3), 126-139.

Nunnally, Jum. C., (1978) Psychometric Theory.New York: McGraw-Hill. 2nd ed. 95–109.

Omanukwue, E. (2011) “Perception of Service Quality in Boutique Hotel Le Six Paris”. 58-61

Ostrowski, P.L., O’Brien, T. and Gordon, G. (1993), "Service quality and customer loyalty in the commercial airline industry", Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 32, pp. 16-24.

Panda, T. K. (2003). “Creating customer lifetime value through effective CRM in financial services industry”, Journal of Services Research, 2(2), 157-171.

Parasuraman, A. & Berry, L. L. (1991). “Marketing for Services: Competing through Quality”. The Free Press, New York, NY

Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A. and Berry, L.L. (1988). “SERVQUAL: a multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality”. Journal of Retailing, 64(1),Spring.

Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A., and Berry, L.L. (1985). “A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research”. Journal of Marketing, 49, Fall

Peeler, G. H. (1996). “Selling in the quality era”. Blackwell Business, USA

Portela, M.C.A.S., and Thanassoulis, E. (2005). “Profitability of a sample of Portuguese bank branches and its decomposition into technical and allocative components”. European Journal of Operational Research, 162(3), 850-866.

Reichheld, F. F. (1993), "Loyalty-based management,” Harvard Business Review(March-April), 64-73.

Selnes, F. (1993), "An examination of the effect of product performance on brand reputation, satisfaction and loyalty", European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 27, pp. 19-35.

Sheth, Jagdish N. and Atul Parvatiyar (1995), "Relationship marketing in consumer markets: Antecedents and consequences," Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 23 (4), 255-271.

Snyder, D.R. (1986), "Service loyalty and its measurement: a preliminary investigation", in Venkatesan, M., Schmalensee, D.M. and Marshall, C. (Eds), Creativity in Service Marketing: What's New, What Works, What's Developing, AMA, Chicago, IL, pp. 44-8.

Storbacka, K., Strandvik, T. and Gronroos, C. (1994), "Managing customer relationships for profit: the dynamics of relationship quality", International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol. 5, pp. 21-38

Sureshchander, G.S., Rajendran, C. and Anatharaman, R.N. (2002), “The relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction: a factor specific approach”, Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 16 No. 4, pp. 363-79.

Szymigin, I., and Carrigan, M. (2001). “Wherefore customer loyalty?”, Journal of Financial Services Marketing, 6(2), 6-8.

Wong J (2002). Service quality measurement in a medical imaging department. Int. J. Health Care Qual. Assur. 15(2): 206-12

Zeithaml, V.A. and Bitner, M.J. (1996), “Services Marketing”, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

Zeithaml, V.A., Berry, L.L. and Parasuraman, A. (1996), "The behavioral consequences of service quality", Journal of Marketing, Vol. 60, pp. 31-46.




Como Citar

Bhaskaran Pillai, S. K. (2018). Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty: a comparative study of hotel with retail banking, hospitals and retail services industries. Revista Latino-Americana De Turismologia, 3(2), 38–49.