Como delimitar e descrever um sistema de Memória Humana?

Palavras-chave: Psicologia cognitiva, Psicologia experimental, Memória


O estudante ou pesquisador que inicia seus estudos em Psicologia Cognitiva geralmente aprende sobre o funcionamento de diversos sistemas de memória (e.g. memória declarativa/explícita e não-declarativa/implícita, memória episódica, memória semântica, memória operacional/de trabalho, memória procedural), mas não tem acesso aos detalhes do processo científico de descrição desses sistemas. De maneira semelhante, o profissional clínico pode enfrentar dificuldades para compreender os detalhes metodológicos dos estudos que originaram ferramentas de avaliação e intervenção neuropsicológica ao consultar a literatura científica da área. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar uma visão global dos desafios teóricos e metodológicos no estudo da memória humana, com ênfase na delimitação dos sistemas de memória. 


Baddeley, A. D., & Ecob, J. R. (2017). Simultaneous acoustic and semantic coding in short-term memory. In Exploring Working Memory (pp. 15-17). Routledge.
Bunge, M. (1998). Philosophy of science: from explanation to justification (Vol. 1). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Atkinson, R. C., & Shiffrin, R. M. (1968). Human Memory: A Proposed System and its Control Processes. In K. W. Spence & J. T. Spence (Eds.), The psychology of learning and motivation: II (pp. 89–195). Oxford: Academic Press.
Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. (1974). Working Memory. In Psychology of Learning and Motivation - Advances in Research and Theory (Vol. 8, pp. 47–89). Academic Press.
Barrouillet, P., & Camos, V. (2012). As time goes by: temporal constraints in working memory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(6), 413–419.
Campoy, G., Castellà, J., Provencio, V., Hitch, G. J., & Baddeley, A. D. (2015). Automatic semantic encoding in verbal short-term memory: Evidence from the concreteness effect. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68(4), 759–778.
Cochran, K. J., Greenspan, R. L., Bogart, D. F., & Loftus, E. F. (2016). Memory blindness: Altered memory reports lead to distortion in eyewitness memory. Memory & Cognition, 44(5), 717–726.
Cohen, N. J., Poldrack, R. A., & Eichenbaum, H. (1997). Memory for Items and Memory for Relations in the Procedural/Declarative Memory Framework. Memory, 5(1–2), 131–178.
Cowan, N. (1993). Activation, attention, and short-term memory. Memory & Cognition, 21(2), 162–167.
Denis, M., & Kosslyn, S. M. (1999). Scanning visual mental images: A window on the mind. Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive/Current Psychology of Cognition, 18(4), 409–465.
Ebbinghaus, H. (1885). Memory: A Contribution to Experimental Psychology. Retrieved from
Eysenck, M. W., & Keane, M. T. (2017). Manual de Psicologia Cognitiva (7ª ed.). Porto Alegre: Artmed.
Logie, R. H. (2003). Spatial and Visual Working Memory: A Mental Workspace. Psychology of Learning and Motivation - Advances in Research and Theory, 42, 37–78.
Logie, R. H. (2011). The functional organization and capacity limits of working memory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20(4), 240–245.
Nadel, L., & Moscovitch, M. (1997). Memory consolidation, retrograde amnesia and the hippocampal complex. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 7(2), 217–227.
Narimoto, T., Matsuura, N., & Hiratani, M. (2018). Impaired Visuospatial Short-Term Memory in Children with ADHD. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 179(1), 19–29.
Neisser, U. (1967). Cognitive psychology. East Norwalk, CT, US: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Pearson, D. G. (2001). Imagery and the visuo-spatial sketchpad. In J. Andrade (Ed.), Working memory in perspective (pp. 33–59). Hove: Psychology Press.
Posner, M. I. (1967). Short term memory systems in human information processing. Acta Psychologica, 27, 267–284.
Pylyshyn, Z. (2003). Return of the mental image: are there really pictures in the brain? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7(3), 113–118.
Pylyshyn, Z. W. (1973). What the mind’s eye tells the mind’s brain: A critique of mental imagery. Psychological Bulletin, 80(1), 1–24.
Russell, W. A., & Storms, L. H. (1955). Implicit verbal chaining in paired-associate learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49(4), 287-293.
Schacter, D. L., & Tulving, E. (1994). What are the memory systems of 1994? In D. L. Schacter & E. Tulving (Eds.), Memory systems (pp. 1–38). Cambridge, MA, US: The MIT Press.
Shneider, A. M. (2009). Four stages of a scientific discipline; four types of scientist. Trends in Biochemical Sciences, 34(5), 217–223.
Simon, H. A. (1978). Information-processing theory of human problem solving. In W. K. Estes (Ed.) Handbook of learning and cognitive processes: human information processing (pp. 271-295). Hove: Psychology Press
Simon, H. A., & Feigenbaum, E. A. (1964). An information-processing theory of some effects of similarity, familiarization, and meaningfulness in verbal learning. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 3(5), 385–396.
Sperling, G. (1960). The information available in brief visual presentations. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 74(11), 1–29.
Squire, L. R. (2009). Memory and brain systems: 1969-2009. The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 29(41), 12711–12716.
Squire, L. R., & Dede, A. J. O. (2015). Conscious and unconscious memory systems. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology, 7(3), a021667.
Sternberg, R. J., & Sternberg, K. (2017). Psicologia Cognitiva (7ª ed.). São Paulo: Cengage Learning.
St. Jacques, P. L., Szpunar, K. K., & Schacter, D. L. (2017). Shifting visual perspective during retrieval shapes autobiographical memories. NeuroImage, 148, 103–114.
Tulving, E. (1995). Organization of memory: Quo vadis? In M. S. Gazzaniga (Ed.), The cognitive neurosciences (pp. 839–853). Cambridge, MA, US: The MIT Press.
Tulving, Endel. (1985). How many memory systems are there? American Psychologist, 40(4), 385–398.
Turvey, M. T. (1977). Contrasting operations to the theory of visual information processing. Psychologival Review, 84(1), 67–88. Retrieved from
Uittenhove, K., Chaabi, L., Camos, V., & Barrouillet, P. (2019). Is Working Memory Storage Intrinsically Domain- Specific? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.
Unsworth, N., & Engle, R. W. (2007). The Nature of Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity: Active Maintenance in Primary Memory and Controlled Search From Secondary Memory.
Vasques, R., Garcia, R. B., & Galera, C. (2016). Short-term memory recall of visual patterns under static and dynamic visual noise. Psychology & Neuroscience, 9(1), 46–53.