Efeitos contrastantes da vitamina D sobre a resposta imune inata e adquirida e seu impacto na recuperação da tuberculose

Autores

  • Henrique Couto Teixeira Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Departamento de Parasitologia, Microbiologia e Imunologia. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0172-9720
  • Lavínia da Silva Dias Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Departamento de Parasitologia, Microbiologia e Imunologia.
  • Heloísa D'Avila da Silva Bizarro Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Departamento de Biologia.
  • Juciane Maria de Andrade Castro Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Departamento de Parasitologia, Microbiologia e Imunologia.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.34019/1982-8047.2018.v44.22232

Palavras-chave:

Vitamina D, 25(OH)D, Sistema imune, Tuberculose, Tratamento

Resumo

A vitamina D é um hormônio essencial para o organismo, podendo ser obtida da dieta ou, principalmente, gerada pela pele após exposição à luz solar ultravioleta B. Na sua forma ativa (1,25(OH)2D) ela controla a absorção de cálcio e fósforo do intestino para a corrente sanguínea e participa de diversos processos celulares e fisiológicos. A ligação da 1,25(OH)2D ao receptor da vitamina D (VDR) presente em diversas células, como as células do sistema imunológico, induz a transcrição de genes que podem, por exemplo, modular a resposta imune inata e adquirida. A deficiência de vitamina D ou do VDR é associada a problemas de saúde como desordens esqueléticas, hipertensão, doenças cardiovasculares, diabetes mellitus, dislipidemias, doenças autoimunes e doenças infecciosas. Neste sentido, a suplementação com vitamina D tem sido proposta como uma possível medida preventiva, podendo ser aplicada em muitas patologias, em especial na tuberculose. Principal causa de morte por um único agente infeccioso, a tuberculose é responsável por cerca de 1,3 milhões de óbitos por ano no mundo. Publicações recentes apontam efeitos diversos da vitamina D na resposta imune inata e adquirida. A 1,25(OH)2D3 na presença do interferon (IFN)-γ é capaz de aumentar a atividade bactericida do macrófago contra o M. tuberculosis, aumentando a produção de peptídios antimicrobianos e estimulando a autofagia, favorecendo assim a lise de bacilos localizados em fagossomos. Por outro lado, a vitamina D em linfócitos T mostra efeito tolerogênico que favorece o controle de respostas inflamatórias excessivas. Neste trabalho de revisão são apresentados estudos recentes envolvendo efeitos da vitamina D na resposta imune inata e adquirida. Além disso, considerações sobre deficiência de vitamina D e maior risco de contrair tuberculose, e efeitos contrastantes da suplementação com vitamina D na prevenção e tratamento da TB, são discutidos.

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Biografia do Autor

Henrique Couto Teixeira, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Departamento de Parasitologia, Microbiologia e Imunologia.

Laboratório de Imunologia
Departamento de Parasitologia, Microbiologia e Imunologia Instituto de Ciências Biológicas Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora. Juiz de Fora, MG.
Tel/Fax: 32-2102-6320

Área: Imunologia  /  Imunologia Aplicada

Lavínia da Silva Dias, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Departamento de Parasitologia, Microbiologia e Imunologia.

Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Departamento de Parasitologia, Microbiologia e Imunologia.

Área: Imunologia / Imunologia Aplicada

Heloísa D'Avila da Silva Bizarro, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Departamento de Biologia.

Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Departamento de Parasitologia, Microbiologia e Imunologia.

Biologia / Biologia Celular

Juciane Maria de Andrade Castro, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Departamento de Parasitologia, Microbiologia e Imunologia.

Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Departamento de Parasitologia, Microbiologia e Imunologia.

Imunologia / Imunologia Aplicada

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2019-06-21

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1.
Teixeira HC, Dias L da S, Bizarro HD da S, Castro JM de A. Efeitos contrastantes da vitamina D sobre a resposta imune inata e adquirida e seu impacto na recuperação da tuberculose. hu rev [Internet]. 21º de junho de 2019 [citado 2º de outubro de 2022];44(3):369-78. Disponível em: https://periodicos.ufjf.br/index.php/hurevista/article/view/22232

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