Efeito da suplementação de ômega 3 isolado ou associado em pacientes com doença de Alzheimer: uma revisão sistemática da literatura científica

  • Christianne Rosiak Gonzaga dos Santos Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Goiás (PUC Goiás)
  • Camila Kellen de Souza Cardoso Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG)
Palavras-chave: Cérebro, Doença de Alzheimer, Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos Ácidos Graxos Insaturados

Resumo

Introdução: O envelhecimento da população está associado ao aumento da incidência da doença de Alzheimer (DA), a qual causa graves complicações ao paciente. Os nutrientes imunomoduladores, como os ácidos graxos poli-insaturados (PUFAs) da série ômega 3 (w-3) podem auxiliar na melhora do quadro clínico da DA. Objetivo: Analisar o efeito da suplementação de PUFAs w-3 isolado ou associado na população idosa com DA. Material e métodos: Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática de literatura científica nas bases de dados Pubmed e Science Direct, que englobou ensaios clínicos em idosos com provável e/ou comprovado diagnóstico de DA e suplementados com PUFAS w-3 isolado ou associado, no idioma inglês e com os seguintes descritores em saúde (DECs): brain, Alzheimer’s disease, fatty docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), older and elderly people e termo de pesquisa: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). O recorte temporal das publicações foi delimitado de 2006 a 2017. Resultados: foram selecionados 10 ensaios clínicos, cuja suplementação de w-3 favoreceu menor declínio no score de miniexame de estado mental (MEEM), retardo da disfunção, melhora no domínio de agitação do inventário neuropsiquiátrico (NPI) e melhora dos sintomas depressivos pela Escala de Depressão de Montgomery-Asberg (MADRS). Foram observadas mudanças significativas como aumento de apetite, peso, índice de massa corporal (IMC), EPA e DHA, além de reduções nos níveis séricos de albumina, ácido araquidônico (AA), ácido mirístico, interleucina-6 (IL- 6), interleucina 1 ß (IL-1ß) e fator estimulante de colônias de granulócitos (G-CSF) e redução na liberação de prostaglandina F2α (PGF2α). Foram relatadas alterações positivas em alguns genes e em outros, redução de sua expressão, além de hipometilação de importantes genes. Conclusão: A suplementação de PUFAs w-3 exerceu efeito positivo em pacientes com DA grau leve a moderado.

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Publicado
2020-02-14
Como Citar
Rosiak Gonzaga dos Santos, C., & de Souza Cardoso, C. K. (2020). Efeito da suplementação de ômega 3 isolado ou associado em pacientes com doença de Alzheimer: uma revisão sistemática da literatura científica. HU Revista, 45(4), 452-464. https://doi.org/10.34019/1982-8047.2019.v45.27797
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Artigos de Revisão Sistemática