Tecido adiposo: suas cores e versatilidade

Palavras-chave: Tecido Adiposo, Adipócito, Lipólise, Termogênese, Obesidade

Resumo

Introdução: O tecido adiposo e suas células tem sido amplamente estudados devido à sua relação íntima com a obesidade. Objetivo: Identificar aspectos históricos e relevantes sobre o avanço na compreensão da função metabólica do tecido adiposo, sobretudo quanto ao seu potencial como alvo terapêutico no controle de doenças metabólicas. Materiais e Métodos: Foi feita uma revisão narrativa da literatura, sem restrição de data, priorizando fontes primárias indexadas pela base de dados PubMed. Resultados: As evidências da existência de tecido adiposo com propriedades termogênicas demonstrada em humanos adultos promoveram grande interesse no estudo do tecido adiposo, em razão de seu potencial terapêutico no controle da obesidade. A plasticidade e versatilidade do tecido adiposo são evidenciadas pelos diversos tipos de adipócitos hoje estudados. Os classicamente conhecidos: branco (WAT) e marrom (BAT), e o mais recentemente descoberto: bege (beige/brite), também conhecido como tecido adiposo marrom induzível; além dos adipócitos rosa e os de medula óssea. Enquanto o WAT é responsável por estocar o excesso de energia na forma de lipídeos, estando diretamente relacionado à obesidade, o BAT, por apresentar alta capacidade oxidativa, pode influenciar no aumento da taxa metabólica corporal, reduzindo a obesidade. Nesse contexto, o tecido adiposo bege apresenta dupla função: Comporta-se como o branco, armazenando o excesso de energia ou, quando estimulado (exposição ao frio, estimulação simpática), tem seu programa termogênico ativado, elevando a expressão de UCP1 (Uncoupling Protein-1) a níveis semelhantes aos do tecido adiposo marrom e promovendo maior dissipação de energia. O tecido adiposo se apresenta versátil por se adaptar à diferentes condições metabólicas, em contextos específicos como na lactação, na hematopoiese, por sua atuação como órgão endócrino ou na modulação do metabolismo energético. Conclusão: Assim, a compreensão de aspectos funcionais e moleculares dos adipócitos, nos possibilita identificar novas formas de tratamento para distúrbios metabólicos.

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Publicado
2020-12-29
Como Citar
1.
Fonseca Raposo H. Tecido adiposo: suas cores e versatilidade . hu rev [Internet]. 29º de dezembro de 2020 [citado 20º de janeiro de 2021];460:1-12. Disponível em: https://periodicos.ufjf.br/index.php/hurevista/article/view/31268
Seção
Artigos de Revisão da Literatura