Intervenções religiosas e espirituais em saúde física
Palavras-chave:Espiritualidade, Religiosidade, IER, Ensaios clínicos
Introdução: O crescimento de pesquisas na área de saúde e espiritualidade/religiosidade (E/R) tem sido exponencial. Mais recentemente pode-se observar também um desenvolvimento de estudos sobre intervenção espiritual/religiosa (IER) como tratamento complementar em saúde, cujo objetivo é estimular essa dimensão para benefícios clínicos. Objetivo: Revisar as pesquisas de IER em saúde física salientando os pontos mais importantes e relevantes. Material e Métodos: O presente trabalho foi fundamentado em uma recente publicação de revisão sistemática sobre IER em saúde física. Resultados: Após a triagem de mais 4000 artigos científicos, foram selecionados 30 que abordaram IER em desfechos físicos/clínicos utilizando metodologia científica rigorosa. As IER apresentaram foco espiritual ou religioso e suas técnicas de abordagem foram variadas. Os desfechos incluíram qualidade de vida, perda de peso e atividade física, dor, promoção de comportamento saudável e outros. Com relação aos resultados clínicos, os tamanhos de efeito variaram de insignificantes à relevantes, dependendo do desfecho e da população, porém nenhum estudo apresentou um desfecho negativo que contraindicasse a IER. A metodologia dos ensaios clínicos se mostrou adequada às propostas não-farmacológicas, com necessidade de atenção a itens específicos e relevante para minimizar vieses. Conclusão: Os resultados clínicos das IER parecem promissores como tratamento complementar em saúde. A diversidade de população, desfechos e protocolos de IER deve ser explorada e fundamentada em embasamento científico. Futuras pesquisas podem se basear em novas diretrizes resultantes dos atuais estudos com vistas a aprofundar e melhor caracterizar o impacto das IER nos tratamentos complementares em saúde.
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